Word window comes from the old Norse 'vindauga', 'vindr – wind and' auga – eye ', ie' wind-eye '. If this has piqued your curiosity, check out Feeding America. In Norwegian Nynorsk Norwegian and Icelandic old form survived to this day (in Icelandic only as a less used synonym for gluggi). In Swedish, the word vindoga remains as a term for a hole through the roof of the hut, and the Danish 'vindue' and Norwegian Bokmal 'vindu', a direct relationship with the 'eye' is lost, just like for the 'window'. Window the first time early 13th century, and originally mentioned unglazed hole in the roof. Window replaced the Old English 'eagbyrl', which literally means 'eye' and 'eagduru' 'door-eye'. Many Germanic languages however adopted the Latin word for 'small box 'to describe a box with a glass, such as the Swedish standard' fonster ', or the German' Fenster '. Use the window in the English language is probably due to Scandinavian influence on English language through loanwords during Viking age.
English word fenester used as a parallel to the mid-1700's, and fenestration is still used to describe the arrangement of windows within the facade. Primitive windows were just holes in the wall. Shutters that could be opened and closed, the windows appeared later. Over time, the windows were built to and protect the residents and ploho passed light: the window glass mullioned, who joined the multiple small pieces of glass with offset, paper box, smoothed part of the transparent animal horn, and plates thinly sliced marble. The Romans were the first to use glass for windows. In Alexandria, about 100 years bc Began to appear at the window glass with poor optical properties. Glass windows were popular among wealthy European estates, whereas paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China, Korea and Japan. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of glass smoothed horns of animals have been used 14C-century in North uk. Windows from floor to ceiling, contemporary style became possible only after the industrial glass making process was perfected.
Preparation of metal surfaces rust from small surfaces (radiators, grills, railings, etc.) or hand-cleaned steel electric toothbrushes. At the same time removed from the surface film of rust, scale, spray plaster and glue paints. Installed on the space radiators is difficult to clean the side facing the wall. Therefore, radiators, clean and proolifit before installing them in place. Center for Responsible Business may not feel the same. the ground surface.
Additional operations performed in preparing the surfaces to remove rust stains non-aqueous, fat and other stains from the surfaces is the same as for water stains. Previously painted with oil paint surface, but contaminated with long-term operation, washed with hot soapy water or soda. In the case of backlog of or damage to the oil film on the large areas of its remnants must be removed and the surface to prepare and paint again. There are three ways of removing the old oil film: mechanical, fire and chemical. When film is removed mechanically using a metal trowel, scrapers or chisels.
It is often damaged outer layer of plaster, which subsequently have to grind with the addition of lime-sand mortar. This method is applicable for all surfaces, except wood. The fire way to the oil film is annealed by special gas-flame burners, such as HS-5, building a hairdryer, as well as soldering tubes and immediately clean metal spatula. Working with a blowtorch, you must ensure that it is not smoked. When detected on the surface of soot, it was washed with 1-2% hydrochloric acid. This method is applicable for plaster and metal surfaces.
And authorities in some subjects of the Federation are considering the possibility of further development of the construction of budget accommodation, including through the reduction of elite and commercial real estate. For example, the administration St. Petersburg refused to grant a six-month deferral of payments for investment in land. "If there is no money for the project, the delayed payment does not make sense" – said vice-governor Alexander sergeant. According to him, the city is ready to pay compensation for land that is then either re-expose them for sale or let for construction of budget accommodation.
The authorities in Moscow, by contrast, have decided to subsidize the capital construction companies, but it is only those builders who erected socially significant objects. "Frost" business order not to "freeze" in an economic "cold snaps" working on the construction market companies – both developers and producers of building materials and structures – should reconsider their priorities in line with new realities. For example, many developers have sense to change prices. Thus, the "Southern Construction Company has adjusted his price list, reducing the price of 3-4 thousand rubles per m2. This primarily affected one-bedroom apartments, which were the subject speculative demand. In addition, from what previously it is clear that one of the priorities of the construction business is involved in municipal and state programs. "Today, we hope only to government order, although I have not worked with him because of low profitability. But now there is simply no other way "- says the director of the contracting company Pulkovo Vysotnik Sergey Grachev.