The Brazilian federal government invests to billions of Reals in assistencial attendance and this option if it reflects in the private initiative. The Enterprise Filantropia is compensatory, imediatista, adopted for individual decision, if it limits to favor parcels of segments of the population for charity and it does not require management. Young chicken (2005) affirms that the filantropia tends to generate dependence, what it reduces the quality of the social contribution of the adopted actions, whereas Social Responsibility is a world-wide trend with consequncias more complex than the assistenciais actions. The Enterprise Social Responsibility (RSE) is including and syntonized with the strategies of the company, it has principles, it requires management and persuation of as they must be the relations of the organization with its diverse public, and its purpose is the promotion to the citizenship. In the universe of the great companies of the country, Education is the public politics that more has been prioritized, in accordance with the Group of Justinian codes, Foundations and Companies (GIFE). Census GIFE 2004 registers that 87% of the associates invest in educational projects, 54%, in culture and arts, 48%, in communitarian development and 43%, social assistance. In 2008, the GIFE congregated 112 companies of great transport, what it represents less than 0,02% of the companies in Brazil, as estimative on this total number of the Institute of Pesquisa Econmica Aplicada (IPEA). in this ampler universe, the Brazilian empresariado one is less responsible and filantrpico. The alignment of the empresariado one with the Brazilian government, in relation to the priority of the assistencial, filantrpico, generating of dependence, not emancipador and not fomentador attendance of citizenship easily is perceived in the study on the evolution of the social action of the private companies in Brazil, published for the IPEA in 2006. The Research Social Action of the Companies is the first inquiry with comparative data in the time for the universe of the Brazilian companies formal with one or more employees, located in all regions of the country, in the capitals and the interior of the states, the participation of the enterprise sector in social activities directed toward the communities poor.